The Extent of the Political Human Right Violation among the youths in Uganda

1.0. Introduction 

The East African nation of Uganda is a landlocked country with a varied terrain that encompasses the massive Lake Victoria and the snow-capped Rwenzori Mountains. Being a presidential republic in which the President is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government business. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is given to both the government and the National Assembly. As a multi-party nation, the election and political transition of power is tendered at 5 years for every government political office. 

The struggle for political dispensation and power succession cripples a majority of the national youth including journalists who attempt to capture and update the trend of civic rights performance. The incumbent government’s misuse of police and military to unjustly detain, brutalize and victimize individuals with ideas that differ, posing great suffering and death at worst. The national prisons at the time of political turmoil are brimmed with opposition leaders, and their supporters as well as the ‘stray’ innocent voters. The mal-treatment at the torture centers once picked up by police/military ‘drones’ is unspeakable and body disfiguring. Most female political prisoners end up with ill-mutilation and rape during torture. This contributes to direct human rights violation that requires intervention from prominent world organizations to curb the suffering of the disadvantaged. 

2.0. Literature Review 

This chapter deals with the articles that relate to Political human rights violation among the youths in Uganda centered on extrajudicial killing, unjust detention, and

degrading treatment. For instance, Uganda Radio Network(URN) broadcasted that “Hon. Kyagulanyi aka ‘Bobi Wine’, Hon. Francis Zaake and others were arrested by the Uganda police”. Also, Local media outlets shared photographs of Zaake from a health report (2018, August, 15) demonstrating that Zaake had suffered torture while in military detention (Human Rights Watch). According to Ggoobi, Nannozi Susanie, et al, one political leader ‘Kyagulanyi’ was brought to the Military Court by the Uganda Police Defence Force (UPDF) with a confirmed report of swelling and bruises on his face by his Attorney. This was a clear indication of torture as a violation of human rights. This was clear evidence of torture in military detention as it relates to the violation of human rights. Hon Kyagulanyi said that the orders were to brutalize him with excruciating blisters. 

As reported by (Iqbal, Yanis), Several journalists and over 34 people were arrested while others were shot dead with Kyagulanyi’s driver included. During the 2021 general election period, several opposition political leaders had unjustified arrests and blocked public rallies. The incumbent mostly used the police and military personnel to abuse the power of protecting and preserving the constitution by brutalizing the nationals. Based on the report by (Nyeko, Oryem), Authorities utilize the law to repress members of the opposition and their subjects from exercising their duties. 

According to Amnesty Internal, Extrajudicial killings, beatings, and the use of bullets and tear gas to indiscriminately disperse opposition supporters have defined the campaign period. In connection with election-related violence, hundreds of citizens have died, the majority of them were shot dead by police and other security personnel. Although several opponents’ presidential candidates have experienced significant police

brutality during the campaign, Robert Kyagulanyi and the NUP party’s supporters appear to be the targets of the worst of it. They have frequently been denied access to paved roads, public spaces, and hotels in various different locations of the country. They have also been shot at, gassed with tear gas, beaten, and jailed without cause. In contrast to the NUP and other parties, there have been numerous instances where supporters of the ruling NRM have congregated in sizable masses unmolested by police. 

3.0. Methodology 

To achieve the main goals of this paper, we gathered, reviewed, and investigated materials from numerous prestigious journals, articles as well as all write-ups worldwide that were pertinent to political human rights violations linked to the youths in Uganda We have focused on the most cutting-edge ozone presidential human rights that are violated and outstanding solutions. We conducted research utilizing a literature review approach and examined numerous themes connected to human rights violations and their impact on potential individuals as well as the public to have a better understanding of this study. 

4.0. Findings 

One needs a solid understanding of the incumbent Government, which has governed Uganda for over 35 years, in order to comprehend, evaluate, and applaud the undemocratic behaviors seen throughout the election process in Uganda. Uganda is developing, and most youths have never lived under a government besides the one headed by President Museveni.

There is no any uncertainty that at least 500 Ugangans have been kept without any charge at military facilities and safe homes, tortured and executed extrajudicially since the official presidential and and parliamentary election campaigns began in November 2020 (Akinamamawaafrika). People who participated in anti-government protests and those who were recognized as dissidents by the government were killed by security forces, according to reports from opposition activists, local media, and human rights advocates. Opposition politicians and their subjects were blocked from exercising their civic rights as accused of not meeting all the requirements as per Public Order Management Act. illegal usage of tear gas to disperse the crowd yet the constitution of Uganda provides the freedom to assemble during campaigns and rallies for both incumbent and opposition factions(Nyeko, Oryem). A similar instance occurred when one of the opposing supporters (Ritah Nabukenya) was deliberately knocked to death by the police truck just because she is from a nonruling party (The Independent). An attempt to explain the incident by insisting on the authorities to provide the event’s CCTV footage remained futile as the UPDF officials claimed that the area’s cameras were malfunctioning and had no records. This was evident enough to portray the violation of civic obligation and extrajudicial killing among the youths. 

An opposition party known as Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) led by Dr. Kizza Besigye, has had the same ill-treatment against the ruling party. He has been imprisoned numerous times due to political afflictions and lost four elections to President Yoweri Museveni, who has been in power for a long time (Reuters). Dr. Besigye’s recent arrest was in 2020 when he walked on the streets in an effort to draw attention to the rising costs of commodities. This was not just a mere arrest but a brutal one. Also in 2019, Dr. Kizza Besigye was detained for organizing a Forum for Democratic Change (FDC)

supporters walk from Kampala to the party’s headquarters outside the city (Joannesburg). The write-ups of Sempijja, Norman, and Paula Mora Brito reveal that the government consented to an election procedure without open campaigns and instead use TVs, radios, and social media in order to keep power and address public health issues. To address this, the governing party implemented operating guidelines for the suppression of COVID-19 while leaving its candidates to attract supporters through acts of violence against opposition politicians. This has been concluded as the main reason for the unjustified arrests of many young politicians and their subjects in Uganda. According to the news from URN, Mr. John Katumba from the democratic party’s vehicle was stopped from carrying out his operations and was then arrested for disobeying their actions. 

Torture of victims, violent detention without trials, and killings severely restricted the opposition’s ability to do better in elections. During the voting process, human rights abuses such as beating and death threats, violent arrests, personal humiliation, intimidation, and property damage, occurred in addition to torture and undefined imprisonment (Kakuba, Sultan Juma). Degrading treatment also emerges as one of the human rights issues in Uganda during politics. It’s true for the arrest but then the security personnel conducts it in a brutal way. In addition, a close look at the way in which those imprisoned are treated is worrying. For instance, Dr. Kizza Besigye was arrested when he was conducting a march with his supporters to the FDC party headquarters. The police conducted this arrest in a brutal way whereby he was forced out of his vehicle by water cannons (AfricaNews). Speaker Among repudiates Kizza’s violent arrest and Hon. Atkins Katusabe calls it violent, inhuman and insulting (Chimpreports). According to the report of (Gavin, Michelle), Ugandan torture sparked U.S. contemplation because Lengthy

shadows of torture and bloodshed hang over Uganda’s political past. Following his detention in December 2021, an FDC supporter and novelist named Kakwenza Rukirabashaija told the BBC that he had been tortured by Ugandan security forces. His lawyers stated that while in military captivity, the victim had bloody urination, and difficulty in walking, and suffered from major buttock injuries (Bagnetto, Laura Angela). The victim said that He was seized by the military who punched him unconscious, ordered him to dance, and pulled muscles from his thighs with pliers (Taylor, Liam). His critical condition carried upon urgent medical attention. 

5.0. Discussion 

In accordance with the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard of achievement for all countries and citizens, the political stampede impacted the suffering and extreme violation of the common man’s civic and human rights. With the statistical analysis of political campaigns and rallies that are organized, the opposition factions register at least 75% of the military and security personnel harassment leading to an unjust arrest. Although the peoples of the United Nations have reaffirmed in the Charter their belief in fundamental human rights, in the worth and dignity of every human being, in the equality of men and women, and in their commitment to advancing social progress and higher standards of living in a more libertarian world, the political dispensation in most parts of Africa and Uganda in particular breach the transaction and ultimately contrast the idea rights and achievement both within the Member States and throughout the populations of the regions that fall under incumbent government control. Civil and political rights abuses happen more often and are not usually related to particular conflicts. The forced campaigns and gaining of

voters’ support from men, women, and children constitute one of the worst problems in Uganda today. In many regions of Uganda, prejudice and biases based on religion and tribe is also highly prevalent. These off-sights frequently take place due to the government’s failure to prioritize and address the pressing issues cutting across political regions. 

6.0. Conclusion 

Considering political and civic rights, states hold the primary obligation of responsibility in encouraging and protecting national civil rights. Upon the Government’s ratification of the agreement, the three-fold obligation of respect, protection, and fulfillment of civic rights must be exercised. In case of violations, the government’s obliged to prosecute the responsible culprits. The government must hold everyone (and itself) accountable in accordance with the nation’s bills and constitutions. The members of civil society are obliged to ensure human rights aren’t violated. The political parties, the leaders, and their subjects must stand against discriminatory laws and encourage equality, while promoting individual respect and the civic rights of nationals. Therefore, ensuring the above principles would help alleviate the extent of the Political Human Rights Violations among the youth in conjunction with extrajudicial killing, unjustified detention, and degrading treatment. 

7.0.Works Cited 

AfricaNews. “Uganda Police Uses Water Canons to Brutally Arrest Opposition Leader Besigye.” Africanews, 4 Nov. 2019, ally-arrest-opposition-leader-besigye//. 

Bagnetto, Laura Angela. “Ugandan Writer Rukirabashaija Tortured over Museveni & Son Criticism: Lawyer.” RFI, 9 Jan. 2022, r-museveni-son-criticism-lawyer. 

“Chaos in Uganda:Opposition Leader, Journalists Arrested.” Com.Tr, sted/1635441. Accessed 11 Feb. 2023. 

Gavin, Michelle. “Torture in Uganda Prompts U.s. Introspection.” Council on Foreign Relations, 17 Feb. 2022, 

Ggoobi, Nannozi Susanie, et al. Brutal Arrests, Illegal Detention and Torture: A Failed Test for Rule of Law in Uganda. 2021, re-failed-test-rule-law-uganda/. 

Iqbal, Yanis. “Museveni Represses Opposition, Clings to Power.” Green Left Weekly, no. 1297, 2021, p. 16, doi:10.3316/informit.702239439405494. 

Kakuba, Sultan Juma. “State Repression and Democratic Dispensation in Uganda 1996–2016.” SAGE Open, vol. 11, no. 3, 2021, p. 215824402110306, doi:10.1177/21582440211030638.

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Sempijja, Norman, and Paula Mora Brito. “The Fallacy of ‘scientific Elections’ in the COVID-Era: Exploring the Challenges of Managing the 2020-2021 Elections in Uganda.” Studia z Polityki Publicznej, vol. 9, no. 1(33), 2022, pp. 13–32, doi:10.33119/kszpp/2022.1.1. 

Taylor, Liam. “How One Writer’s Story Ignited a Debate about Torture in Uganda.” Al Jazeera, 11 Feb. 2022, te-uganda.

The Independent. “People Power Supporter’s Death Dents Uganda Police – ANT.” The Independent Uganda:, 26 Feb. 2020, ce-ant/. 

“Uganda.” United States Department of State, 9 Mar. 2021, anda/. 

“Uganda Arrests Opposition’s Besigye Again, Breaks up Price Protests.” Reuters, Reuters, 24 May 2022, reaks-up-price-protests-2022-05-24/. 

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